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      Climate Change Awareness and Risk Perceptions in the Coastal Marine Ecosystem of Palawan, Philippines

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            Revision notes

             

            Article Revision Matrix

            Article Title: Climate Change Awareness and Risk Perceptions in the Coastal Marine Ecosystem of Palawan, Philippines

            Corresponding Author: Lutgardo Alcantara

             

            INTRODUCTION

            Reviewer’s Comments and Suggestions

            Original Text

            Responses and Revisions

            Lines 33-44 “…species [10]”. References can be condensed considering this is just an overview.

            Climate change is the challenge of our generation. Its impacts can already be seen on human health [1], agriculture, water resources [2], food safety [3], food security [4], and coastal and marine ecosystems [5].

            Revised. See lines 32 -34

            Climate change is the challenge of our generation. Its impacts can already be seen on human health, agriculture, water resources, food safety, food security, and coastal and marine ecosystems [1–5].

            Lines 44-46. A little bit misplaced, given the first few paragraphs and succeeding paragraph gives an overview of the impacts of climate change generally and in the Philippines. These lines can be moved closer (or as a transition) to Lines 62 onward (since this paragraph is closer to the research study).

            Understanding the public's perception of these climate change impacts is key to getting public support and fostering collective action for effective climate change adaptation, mitigation, and sustainable resource management [11–13]

             

             

             

             

             

             

             

            [8]. The ocean has absorbed over 93% of the excess heat from greenhouse gas emissions [9]. The absorption of greenhouse gases makes the oceans more acidic, making it more difficult for corals to build their skeletons [9]. Aside from acidification, higher sea surface temperatures also increase the risks of coral bleaching, which can lead to coral death and the loss of critical habitats for other species [10].

            Relocated previous lines 44-46 to lines 64 - 69.

            Further research into community awareness and risk perceptions can give us a clearer picture on which to base conservation decision-making and environmental management, which will help the province better mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change [25]. Additionally, this could lead to greater participation, more effective management practices that meet the capabilities of the concerned stakeholders, and, eventually, faster restoration of maritime resources [26].

             

            Inserted new sentence to line 43-46. Highlighted in yellow.

             

            These impacts of climate change which result in the loss of marine diversity and the degradation of coastal marine ecosystems are relatively well known [13,14]. However, coastal communities may perceive these impacts differently, which necessitates further investigation.

             

             

            Line 50. “Seven out of 25 cities (in the world?)”

            Seven out of 25 cities most vulnerable to a 1-m sea level rise are in the Philippines.

            Revised see lines 49-50 highlighted in yellow.

            Seven out of 25 cities globally most vulnerable to a 1-m sea level rise are in the Philippines.

            Line 66. “…a complete picture for conservation decision-making and environmental management”.

             

            To better mitigate and adapt to climate change impacts in the province, further understanding of the community’s awareness and risk perceptions can provide a complete picture on which we can base conservation decisions and environmental management.

            Revised, see line 65. I have also revised the whole sentence.

            Further research into community awareness and risk perceptions can give us a clearer picture on which to base conservation decision-making and environmental management, which will help the province better mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change [22]. Additionally, this could lead to greater participation, more effective management practices that meet the capabilities of the concerned stakeholders, and eventually, quicker restoration of maritime resources [23].

            Line 69. Indent “In Asia…” to next paragraph.

             

             

            Revised sentence and made new paragraph, see lines 71-74

            Studies found that public awareness and risk perceptions vary greatly [24]. In Asia, the most important indicator of risk perception of climate change impacts is local temperature change [24,25], whereas globally, climate change awareness is determined by educational attainment [24].

            Line 79. “Public opinion research…” Sentence is a bit misplaced, if the variation of research will not be discussed here.

            Public opinion research finds that climate change awareness varies greatly [25].

            Transferred to line 71.

            Studies have shown that people's climate change awareness and risk perceptions vary widely and are influenced by various factors [24]. In Asia, the most important indicator of risk perception of climate change impacts is local temperature change [24,25], whereas globally, climate change awareness is determined by educational attainment [24].

            Perhaps move closer to discussion. Succeeding sentence “the study on risk perceptions…” can be merged with the previous “the present study…”

             

             

            Revised. See lines 81-84

             

            The current study focuses on climate change awareness and risk perceptions of the impacts on coastal communities caused by sea-level rise in the mangrove ecosystem, as well as the perceived impacts of climate change and anthropogenic drivers on coral reefs and seagrass beds [25,33].

            Line 92. Missing quotation marks for “ecological public health…”

             

            ‘ecological public health as a response to global environmental concerns.

            Revised see line 91

             

            The study approach was patterned with the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions (eDPSEEA) model, which recognizes the convergence between the idea of ecosystem services, which gives the value of ecosystems a human health and well-being slant while also emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for "ecological public health" as a response to global environmental concerns that are currently permeating the discourse in public health [34]. 

            Line 93. Use of “we”. Please check for consistency throughout paper if using first or third person where appropriate.

             

             

            Revised the sentence, see line 93. Highlighted in yellow.

            Specifically, the following are the objectives that this research attempted to address: (i)

            MATERIALS AND METHODS

            Line 118. “In the simulation conducted by…” Consider moving to Introduction. Furthermore, does this same study include the climate change exposure map of DENR? A reference needs to be made for such a map.

             

            In the simulation conducted by Lapidez et al. (2015), it was shown that Palawan, due to its low coastal elevation zones is one of the most vulnerable provinces in the Philippines to coastal flooding [37].

            Transferred to line 55. The DENR exposure map was in the supplementary figure 2.

            In the 2015 simulation, Palawan is one of the Philippine provinces most vulnerable to coastal flooding due to its low coastline elevation zones [17,18]. With a 1-m sea level rise, 6,428.16 ha of land is expected to be inundated in the province [14]. Thankfully, Palawan's selection as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (BR) can help lessen the effects of climate change and spur efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change [19].

             

            Aborlan, Puerto Princesa City, and the rest of southern Palawan are vulnerable to sea level rise, whereas Taytay and the rest of northern Palawan are vulnerable to extreme heating events, unstable water supplies, and sea-level rise, according to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) climate change exposure map (Supplementary Fig. 2) [39]

            Line 130. “The province..” – meaning Palawan?

             

            The province is the largest producer of seaweed in the country, and Taytay is one of the main producers of the province.

            I have revised the sentence. See line 127-128

             

            Furthermore, the province of Palawan is the largest producer of seaweed in the country, and Taytay is one of the main producers in the province

            Figure 2. Revision much clearer than previous version. Is there a reason why the risk perception of the impact of climate change, anthropogenic pressures and marine livelihood was only examined for coral reefs and seagrasses (and not mangroves?)

             

            The reason why mangroves was not included is that the term climate change impact, anthropogenic drivers’ impact, and marine livelihood impact are terms obtained from the principal component analysis or the dimension reduction of the variables affecting corals and seagrasses. Upon conducting PCA, only three variables were left – climate change impact, anthropogenic drivers’ impact, and marine livelihood impact.

            Regarding mangroves, the data from the survey are only about the perceived impact of sea level rise on the mangrove ecosystem, which was discussed in the earlier part of this paper.

             

            Furthermore, consider articulating some of these terms e.g. Driver, Pressure… in the discussion to connect to the overall discussion to the framework. I start to see the use of “driver” in Lines 401 onwards, but I don’t see this consistently used.

             

             

            Done.

            For the drivers: I used anthropogenic drivers and global climate change as drivers.

            I no longer use the term pressures since, in my framework, they refer to the climate change impacts, such as temperature rise, excessive rainfall, sea level rise, and so on.

            Previously, I used the term anthropogenic pressures, but I have since corrected it to anthropogenic drivers in accordance with my framework.

             

             

             

            RESULTS

            Consider merging section 3.3 with 3.2 since 3.2 has short results.

             

             

            Done. See lines 230 -275

            Consider moving bar charts related to agreement/disagreement to Supplementary materials, or consider combining charts into a panel or subplot illustration. I’m sorry I did not point this out earlier in the first version but it may be a good way to compare agreement/disagreement if placed in one illustration. For instance, the comparisons in Figure 7 and 8 were summarized.

             

             

            Done. See Figure 3. Lines 244

            Line 321. Missing “s” in “group”.

             

             

            Done. See line 307 highlighted in yellow.

            and the 40 – 49 years old groups (B = 0.78, p < 0.05) have a significantly higher risk perception

            Line 345. Missing quotation marks in “not poor”.

             

             

            Done. See line 332 highlighted in yellow.

            On socio-demographic variables, the group categorized as “not poor” have significantly

            DISCUSSION UNDER SECTION 4.1

            This section identifies the key predictors (personal experiences of climate impacts) of climate change awareness and risk perceptions and thoroughly cross-validates results with previous, similar research. However, I feel this section can benefit from adding a bold subsection/subheader next to each paragraph for ease of reading such as 1) Experience with extreme weather events and anomalies. 2) Experience with climate-related livelihood damages. These experiences have already been summarized and cited by the authors at the beginning of the section (Line 378-380) which provides a very good expectation of what’s to come in the succeeding paragraphs. However, because the discussion is quite rich, one can easily get lost through the reading. With these subsections, the authors can also organize their discussion more cohesively; for example, the predictors of temperature rise, excessive rainfall, and sea level rise can all be discussed within the first experience (i.e. weather) rather than discussed disjointly across the section. More specific suggestions and comments per line are found below:

             

             

            Revised. See line 369

            4.1.1 Experience with extreme weather events and anomalies

            See line 443

            4.1.2 Experience with sea level rise

             

            Note: I have added this because I think that sea level rise does not belong to extreme weather event and anomalies

             

            See line 486

             

            4.1.3 Experience with climate-related livelihood damages

             

            Title: Role of Personal Experiences (in Shaping?) Climate Change Awareness and Risk Perceptions

             

            Revised. See line 363

            4.1.      Role of Personal Experiences in Shaping Climate Change Awareness and Risk Perceptions

            Lines 391-400. Revisit overall coherence of paragraph.

            It is uncommon in Palawan to have extreme weather events like excessive  rainfall, thus deviations from normal occurrences like this may serve as an indicator of what climate change will mean for the province [55]. The relationship of other climate-related experiences compared with the “climate is changing” variable is not significant in this study may be because they are not: (1) relatively recent [56]; (2) linked with significant personal and/or financial damages [49,50]; and (3) experienced as abnormalities in temperature [49]. The occurrence of extreme weather events is rare in Palawan and thus may not have a  significant impact on climate change perception, because they cannot be easily recalled [47,57]. The recentness effect can be amplified if the event was linked with personal and financial damage [49,50].

            Revised. See lines 379 - 387

             

            Excessive rainfall is an unusual occurrence in Palawan and may not significantly impact climate change perception because it cannot be easily recalled [48,57]. However, the excessive rainfall brought by typhoon Ketsana (2009) may have left a lasting impression. Previous study suggests that deviations from normal occurrences, such as excessive rainfall, may be perceived by locals as an indicator of climate change [58].  Other studies also show that experiences of climate-related events can generate climate change concern and awareness if they are: (1) unusual weather events compared to local historical events; and (2) they are associated with significant financial and/or personal damages [49–51].

            Line 391-393 “…may serve as an indicator of what climate change will mean for the province”. Not really sure what this means or what is trying to be said.

            It is uncommon in Palawan to have extreme weather events like excessive rainfall, thus deviations from normal occurrences like this may serve as an indicator of what climate change will mean for the province.

            Revised.

            See lines 382 – 384 highlighted in green

            Excessive rainfall is an unusual occurrence in Palawan and may not significantly impact climate change perception because it cannot be easily recalled [48,57]. However, the excessive rainfall brought by typhoon Ketsana (2009) may have left a lasting impression. Previous study suggests that deviations from normal occurrences, such as excessive rainfall, may be perceived by locals as an indicator of climate change [58].  Other studies also show that experiences of climate-related events can generate climate change concern and awareness if they are: (1) unusual weather events compared to local historical events; and (2) they are associated with significant financial and/or personal damages [49–51].

            Line 393-394. “The relationship of other climate-related experiences… (such as?)

            The relationship of other climate-related experiences compared with the “climate is changing” variable is not significant in this study may be because they are not: (1) relatively recent [56]; (2) linked with significant personal and/or financial damages [49,50]; and (3) experienced as abnormalities in temperature [49].

            Revised. See lines 384-387

            Other studies also show that experiences of climate-related events can generate climate change concern and awareness if they are: (1) unusual weather events compared to local historical events; and (2) they are associated with significant financial and/or personal damages [49–51].

            Line 395 “…may be because”. Careful with use of “because”. Consider revising sentence structure such as “other studies may suggest…” or related.

            The relationship of other climate-related experiences compared with the “climate is changing” variable is not significant in this study may be because they are not: (1) relatively recent [56]; (2) linked with significant personal and/or financial damages [49,50]; and (3) experienced as abnormalities in temperature [49].

            Revised. See lines 384-387

            Other studies also show that experiences of climate-related events can generate climate change concern and awareness if they are: (1) unusual weather events compared to local historical events; and (2) they are associated with significant financial and/or personal damages [49–51].

            Line 407. What does “substantial percentage” mean here?

            However, there is still a substantial percentage of skeptics who do not consider climate change as a coastal risk driver.

            Revised see lines 448-449 highlighted in yellow.

            However, 25% of the participants are skeptical and do not consider climate change as a coastal risk driver.

            Line 416. “impact” – sea level rise?

            Additionally, other studies stated that experience is one of the drivers of perception of sea level rise and how they respond to the impact.

            Revised. See lines 457-458.

            Our findings are also in line with earlier research that showed experience is one of the factors affecting how people perceive and respond to sea level rise impacts [48]

            Lines 418 – 431. Revisit connection across studies.

             

             

            Revised. See lines 459 – 472.

            Line 439. “another research study”. Not clear, is this related to the previous? If not, what specific study is this considering UNEP… is specifically cited.

             

            The results of this study are consistent with the report of the UNEP-IOC-ASPEI-IUCN Global Task Team, which states that human anthropogenic pressures pose a far greater immediate threat to coral reefs than climate change [65]. However, on the contrary, another research study found that climate change is the main driver affecting coral dynamics and can exacerbate the impact of anthropogenic drivers [66].

            Removed the mentioned sentence and revised other sentences. See lines 392 – 417

             

            The perception of the participants is in line with a previous study which revealed that anthropogenic drivers pose a far greater immediate threat to coral reefs than climate change [59]. It must be noted that anthropogenic drivers and climate change impacts are interconnected and that anthropogenic drivers are the reason why there are climate change impacts. Thus, the impact of both anthropogenic drivers and climate change must be viewed as per our conceptual framework (Fig. 2)

            Line 443. “previous research”. Is this referring to [46,47]?

             

            The perception of the respondents that marine livelihood, especially illegal fisheries can also impact the coral reefs and seagrasses is in line with the findings of previous research. This unsustainable fishing practice has been identified as the primary threat to coral reefs and the quality of the coastal marine environment [46,67]. On the other hand, long-term fish cage operations, if poorly located and managed, will result in the reduction of the abundance and diversity of local benthic species and degrade the habitats surrounding the cages [68].

            Revised and made into new paragraph. See lines 418 – 425

             

            Personal experience of local temperature rise was also found to be significantly associated with the perceived marine livelihood impact on seagrasses and coral reefs. The warming of the oceans means fewer productive fish species to catch which in turn induces overfishing and illegal fishing activities [67,68]. These destructive fishing practices have been identified as the primary threat to coral reefs and the quality of the coastal marine environment [47,69]. On the other hand, long-term fish cage operations, if poorly located and managed, will result in the reduction of the abundance and diversity of benthic species and degradation of the surrounding habitats  [70,71].

             

            Line 447. Omit lines after [68] “a study found that…” until “meadows.” Simply merge [69] as [68,69].

             

             

            Done. Deleted

             

            Line 454-462. Be sure to include transitions such as “in addition..” or “moreover..” to allow for ease of reading. Not sure why [75] is included as this reference is about flood victim perceptions.

             

             

            Deleted [75]. Revised sentences and made into new paragraph. See lines 418 – 425

             

            The perception of the respondents that marine livelihood, especially illegal fisheries can also impact the coral reefs and seagrasses is in line with the findings of previous research. This unsustainable fishing practice has been identified as the primary threat to coral reefs and the quality of the coastal marine environment [46,67]. On the other hand, long-term fish cage operations, if poorly located and managed, will result in the reduction of the abundance and diversity of benthic species and the degradation of the surrounding habitats [68].

            Line 466. “…conditions that reduce light is a key factor…” Sentence unclear whether reduction of light or just light is a key factor to inhibit (or promote) coral and/or seagrass growth. Revise to something like “..land-based pollutants which increase algal blooms and turbidity, thereby inhibiting light penetration that is necessary for the survival and growth of coral and seagrass ecosystems.”

            •  

             

            Revised as recommended. See lines 414 - 417

            Excessive rainfall results in increased runoff of freshwater, sediments, and land-based pollutants which increase algal blooms and turbidity, thereby inhibiting light penetration that is necessary for the survival and growth of coral and seagrass ecosystems

            Line 469. No reference to Table for income results.

            •  

            Coastal and low-income communities are most vulnerable to climate change impacts Coastal and low-income communities are most vulnerable to climate change impacts [71,79]. Our results showed that participants perceive that declining income is the strongest predictor of climate change and anthropogenic pressures impact seagrasses and coral reefs.

            Revised. See line 488

            Coastal and low-income communities are most vulnerable to climate change impacts [61,77]. Our results showed that participants perceive that declining income is the strongest predictor of climate change impact and anthropogenic drivers impact on seagrasses and coral reefs (Table 4).

            Line 481-482. Sentence repeated from Line 460-462. Revise or omit, with repeated reference to [75] that is unrelated.

             

            These negative anthropogenic pressure impacts may have significantly affected their perceptions and behavioral responses to climate change [74,75]

            Deleted [75 – Whitmarsh]. Revised sentences.

            See lines 409-417, 492-495

             Fisherfolks perceived that loss of income was a result of climate change impacts such as rising sea levels, excessive rainfall, temperature rise, decline in fish catch, and loss of coral reefs, and seagrass cover [61]. Additionally, anthropogenic drivers also result in damaging the coral reefs and seagrass meadows, thereby reducing seaweed farmers’ and fisherfolk’s incomes [63,69]. It is therefore necessary for these vulnerable fishers in the coastal areas to acquire different adaptation and coping strategies to mitigate these impacts [79,80].

            The warmer temperatures can cause coral reefs to bleach and seagrasses to alter growth rates, resulting in reef fish deaths [61,62]. In addition, anthropogenic drivers result in the contamination of aquatic environments which is one of the leading types of pollution that has significant negative impacts on coral reefs and seagrasses [63]. This study also found that personal experience on excessive rainfall is a significant predictor of the anthropogenic drivers and climate change impact on the seagrasses and coral reefs (Table 4). Excessive rainfall results in increased runoff of freshwater, sediment, and land-based pollutants which increase algal blooms and turbidity, thereby inhibiting light penetration that is necessary for the survival and growth of coral and seagrass ecosystems [64–66].

             

             

            Lines 483-488. Consider moving recommendations closer to Lines 495-500 which is the end of the section. (Or in Conclusions?).

             

             

            Moved to 495 – 501

            It is therefore necessary for these vulnerable fishers in the coastal areas to acquire different adaptation and coping strategies to mitigate these impacts [79,80]. To enhance their resilience to the impacts, fishers need development assistance that protects their well-being, prioritizes alternative livelihoods, and provides technical skills training [61,81,82]. Additionally, the coastal community must support the preservation of mangroves, seagrass, and coral reefs, which provide a habitat for important commercial and recreational species and stabilize the seafloor [61,83,84].

             

            DISCUSSION UNDER SECTION 4.2

            • Similar to my general comment for Section 4.1, I think Section 4.2 would also benefit from subsections pertaining to the socio-demographic factors: 1) Gender, 2) Education, 3) Income, 4) Age, 5) Location. More specific suggestions and comments per line are found below:
            •  

             

            Revised. See section 4.2

            • Title: Role of Socio-Demographic Factors (in Shaping?) Climate Change Awareness and Risk Perceptions
            •  

            4.2. Role of Socio-Demographic Factors in Climate Change Awareness and Shaping Risk Perceptions

            Revised. See line 506

              1. Role of Socio-Demographic Factors in Shaping Climate Change Awareness and Risk Perceptions
            • Line 504. “Understanding population demographics” – not dynamics. Also why socio-demographics is important should be explained further. This can also be discussed within the context of recommendations
            •  

             

            Revised. See line 508

            Understanding population demographics

            • Line 540. “The 19-29 year old group”…
            •  

             

            Revised. See line 555

            The 19 – 29 year-old group have higher

            • Line 547. “increases with age” – not increased.
            •  

             

            Revised. See line 562

            increases with age

            • Line 567-568. Is this related to the previous paragraph (on the variation of perceptions per location?)
            •  

            The positive finding of this research is that the coastal residents understand that mangroves are beneficial to them in preventing coastal erosion.

            Revised. See lines 472 -475

            The results revealed that 61.6% of the participants perceived that coastal areas without mangroves are eroded by sea level rise, compared to only 44.6% who perceived that areas with mangroves are also eroded, implying that most of them are aware of how important mangroves are to preventing coastal erosion (Fig. 5).

             

            Revised. See lines 476 - 479

            By educating coastal communities about the importance of mangrove preservation and building their capacity to manage mangrove forests sustainably, climate-friendly policies were more likely to be supported [9,59].

             

            Note: I made the recommendations after the end of every subheading.

            LIMITATIONS

            • Line 581. “…food security. These additional factors could be significant in predicting overall perception of climate change as _____” coastal hazard is a bit vague – hazard to what?
            •  

            This could be significant in predicting their overall perception of climate change as a coastal hazard.

            Revised. See lines 583 – 585.

            These additional factors could be significant in determining how people perceive the overall impacts of climate change, which will help communities and policymakers to develop more environmentally sustainable and socially adaptable programs. However, we intend to address these limitations in future studies.

             

            • Line 584. What is meant by “actual status of climate change impact”? Climate change impacts were certainly described in Palawan and the specific study sites, but what is meant by the statement more specifically? Is it for instance, coral bleaching or seagrass decline? Perhaps “the state of ecosystems impacted by climate change”?
            •  

            The second limitation concerns the actual status of climate change impact on the coastal areas.

            Revised. See lines 587 – 591

            The second limitation concerns the state of ecosystems impacted by climate change in the coastal areas. Directly cross-verifying the state of ecosystems impacted by climate change and the historical data of climate-related events in the coastal areas compared to their perceptions would give a good measurement of their current level of climate-relevant knowledge

            CONCLUSIONS

            • Line 595. “…but a number remain unaware”. Number is vague.
            •  

            This study suggests that the coastal communities in our study sites have high climate change awareness, but a number remain unaware of the damaging effects of climate

            Revised. See lines 598 – 600.

            This study suggests that while coastal communities in our study sites have  high awareness (82%) on climate change, the remaining 18% are still unaware that climate change is happening.

             

            • Line 604. Remove extra 19.
            •  

            Furthermore, the 19- 19-29 years old have higher climate change awareness and more concern about marine

            Done. See line 609

            Furthermore, the 19-29 years old group has higher climate change awareness and more concern about marine

            • Line 615. Missing quotation marks on poor.
            •  

            poor” participants have significantly higher risk perception compared to the poor group in

            Revised. See lines 620, highlighted in yellow.

            While the “not poor” participants have significantly higher risk perception compared to the “poor” group in perceiving the impact of the various factors affecting coral reefs and seagrasses.

             

            ADDITIONAL NOTES

            Added new statement.

             

            See lines 20-21

            Local temperature rise and excessive rainfall were found as significant predictors of climate change awareness (p < 0.05).

            Added new statement to give an overview on the impact of sea level rise on mangroves

             

            See lines 39-40

            Rising sea levels are expected to have the greatest influence on the distribution and condition of the mangrove ecosystem in the future

            I have revised Figure 4 for a better presentation of the data.

             

            See line 250, page 12

             

             

             

             

            Abstract

            Understanding the coastal communities’ awareness and risk perceptions of climate change impact is essential in developing effective risk communication tools and mitigation strategies to reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities. In this study, we examined the coastal community’s climate change awareness and risk perceptions of climate change impact on the coastal marine ecosystem, sea level rise impact on the mangrove ecosystem, and as a factor affecting coral reefs and seagrass beds. The data were gathered by conducting face-to-face surveys with 291 respondents from the coastal areas of Taytay, Aborlan, and Puerto Princesa in Palawan, Philippines. Results showed that most participants (82%) perceived that climate change is happening and a great majority (75%) perceived it as a risk to the coastal marine ecosystem. Local temperature rise and excessive rainfall were found as significant predictors of climate change awareness. Sea level rise was perceived by most participants (60%) to cause coastal erosion and affect the mangrove ecosystem. On coral reefs and seagrass ecosystems, anthropogenic drivers and climate change were perceived to have a high impact, while marine livelihoods had a low impact. In addition, we found that climate change risk perceptions were influenced by direct experiences of extreme weather events (i.e., temperature rise and excessive rainfall), and climate-related livelihood damages (i.e., declining income). Climate change risk perceptions were also found to vary with household income, education, age group, and geographical location. The results suggest that addressing poverty, and effectively communicating climate change risks can improve climate change awareness and risk perceptions.

            Content

            Author and article information

            Journal
            UCL Open: Environment Preprint
            UCL Press
            10 November 2022
            Affiliations
            [1 ] College of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Western Philippines University, Puerto Princesa City, 5300, Palawan, Philippines
            [2 ] School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK
            Author notes
            Article
            10.14324/111.444/000150.v3
            8942e0c9-298d-468f-8a3d-588a3b99f38c

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Funding
            This project has received funding from the Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF), United Kingdom Research and Innovation (UKRI) NE/P021107/1

            The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
            Environmental change,Environmental management, Policy & Planning,Atmospheric science & Climatology
            Environmental protection,Policy and law,climate change awareness, risk perception, exposure, experience, impact, policy,Climate change,Environmental policy and practice

            Comments

            Date: 16 November 2022

            Handling Editor: Dr Marlos Goes

            Accept. This revised article has been accepted following peer review and it is suitable for publication in UCL Open: Environment.

            2022-11-18 12:41 UTC
            +1

            Date: 1O November 2022

            Handling Editor: Dr Marlos Goes

            The article has been revised, this article remains a preprint article and peer-review has not been completed. It is under consideration following submission to UCL Open: Environment for open peer review.

            2022-11-11 15:01 UTC
            +1

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