+1 Recommend
1 collections

      UCL Press journals including UCL Open Environment have now moved website.

      You will now find the journal, all publications, reviews and submission information at https://journals.uclpress.co.uk/ucloe


      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Economic impact of Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on an extractive firm: a case study

      This is not the latest version for this article. If you want to read the latest version, click here.


            Purpose : The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic was one of the most severe public health emergencies in modern times. The economic impact of epidemics has mostly been analysed at the macroeconomic level. Conversely, we aimed to estimate the economic costs of preventive measures of the epidemic to an extractive firm, ArcelorMittal, using data in the epidemic region from March 2014 to December 2015. ArcelorMittal is the worlds largest steel producer and particularly important in West Africa, where the extractive industry is economically crucial. Methods : Qualitative methods, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, were used to investigate the events and channels of impact of the epidemic on the firm, as perceived by employees and contractors. Quantitative data regarding these costs was also collected. Retrospective cost analysis estimated the actual cost of preventive methods adopted. Results : Most respondents indicated the largest cost impact was suspension of Phase II expansion, a series of projects designed to increase iron ore production in Liberia. The next largest cost was the preventive measures adopted to counter disease spread. Total costs incurred for adopting preventive measures was USD 10.58-11.11 million. The overall direct costs of preventive measures adopted within the fence, meaning within the physical boundary of the firms sites, shared 30-31% of the total costs incurred. The share of external donation supporting humanitarian response was 11-12% of the total costs, followed by 7-12% of relational costs. Conclusions : The firms response during the EVD epidemic focused on its employees and operations, which was later expanded to the wider community and then in supporting the international humanitarian response.


            Author and article information

            UCL Open: Environment Preprint
            UCL Press
            16 April 2020
            [1 ] THINKLab, The University of Salford, United Kingdom; Centre of Disaster Resilience, The University of Salford, United Kingdom
            [2 ] Oxford Department of International Development and Dependent of Economics, University of Oxford, OX1 3TB, United Kingdom
            [3 ] UCL Institute of Epidemiology & Healthcare, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom
            [4 ] Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom
            [5 ] Department for Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom
            [6 ] ArcelorMittal, 7th Floor, Berkeley Square House, Berkeley Square, London, W1J 6DA, United Kingdom
            [7 ] Chatham House, 10 St. James’ Square, St. James’s, London, SW1Y 4LE, United Kingdom
            [8 ] UCL Institute of Epidemiology & Healthcare, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; Chatham House, 10 St. James’ Square, St. James’s, London, SW1Y 4LE, United Kingdom
            Author information

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            : 30 September 2019
            : 17 April 2020

            The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
            Economics of health & social care,Health & Social care,Infectious disease & Microbiology,Public health
            Ebola,epidemic,economics,health economics,Liberia,Africa,Sanitation, health, and the environment,Environmental economics


            Decision date: 17/4/2020

            Handling Editor: Dan Osborn

            The article has been accepted and it is suitable for publication in UCL Open: Environment.

            2020-09-23 15:23 UTC

            Date: 17/4/2020

            Handling Editor: Dan Osborn

            The Article has been revised, this article remains a preprint article and peer-review has not been completed.

            2020-09-23 15:22 UTC

            Comment on this article