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      Basic considerations on the practical method for predicting sound insulation performance of a single-leaf window

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          As a basic study of a practical method for predicting the sound insulation performance of windows, this report presents a study of the sound reduction index of windows with single glazing, below a critical frequency. First, the results calculated by an existing theory for a single plate for the sound reduction indices are compared with measured results of actual windows to assess the theory’s applicability for evaluating the sound insulation performance of windows. Then, a regression analysis is employed to measure the results of a certain number of actual windows to explore a further development of a more practical prediction. The following findings were obtained: (1) Sound reduction indices of actual fixed windows are predictable using Sewell’s transmission theory for a single plate. However, sound reduction indices of openable windows, especially those of sliding windows, are strongly affected by gaps in the window frame. Therefore, predicting sound reduction indices of all windows accurately is difficult if using only one theory. (2) The frequency slope of the window reduction index is much lower than that of the mass law. Regression analyses indicate that the frequency slope of the reduction index of all examined windows is 3.0 dB per octave, on average.

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          A Review on Natural Ventilation-enabling Façade Noise Control Devices for Congested High-Rise Cities

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            Acoustic Design Criteria in Naturally Ventilated Residential Buildings: New Research Perspectives by Applying the Indoor Soundscape Approach

            The indoor-outdoor connection provided by ventilation openings has been so far a limiting factor in the use of natural ventilation (NV), due to the apparent conflict between ventilation needs and the intrusion of external noise. This limiting factor impedes naturally ventilated buildings meeting the acoustic criteria set by standards and rating protocols, which are reviewed in this paper for residential buildings. The criteria reflect a general effort to minimize noise annoyance by reducing indoor sound levels, typically without a distinction based on a ventilation strategy. Research has developed a number of solutions, discussed here, that try to guarantee ventilation without compromising façade noise insulation, but, currently, none have been adopted on a large scale. This concept paper highlights the main limits of the current approach. First, a fragmented view towards indoor environmental quality has not included consideration of the following acoustic criteria: (i) how buildings are designed and operated to meet multiple needs other than acoustical ones (e.g., ventilation, visual, and cooling needs) and (ii) how people respond to multiple simultaneous environmental factors. Secondly, the lack of a perceptual perspective has led acoustic criteria to neglect the multiple cognitive and behavioral factors impinging on comfort in naturally ventilated houses. Indeed, factors such as the connection with the outside and the sense of control over one’s environment may induce “adaptive acoustic comfort” opportunities that are worth investigating. The mere use of different sound level limits would not be enough to define criteria tailored to the complex user–building interaction that occurs under NV conditions. More holistic and human-centered approaches are required to guarantee not only neutrally but even positively perceived indoor acoustic environments. For this reason, this paper considers this apparent conflict from a soundscape viewpoint, in order to expose still unexplored lines of research. By underpinning a perceptual perspective and by contextualizing it, the indoor soundscape approach provides a framework capable of overcoming the limits of the traditional noise control approach. This could provide the opportunity to foster a wider adoption of NV as a passive design strategy that enhances user health and well-being, while enabling low-cost, and low-energy cooling and ventilation, thereby contributing to current climate change challenges.
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              Environmental and architectural acoustics

               Z Maekawa,  JH Rindel,  P. LORD (2010)

                Author and article information

                UCL Open Environ
                UCL Open Environment
                UCL Open Environ
                UCL Press (UK )
                07 May 2021
                : 2
                [1 ]YKK AP Inc., YKK AP R&D Centre, 1 Ogyu, Kurobe, Toyama 938-8612, Japan
                [2 ]Environmental Acoustists Laboratory, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: E-mail: y_tukamoto@
                © 2021 The Authors.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, References: 15, Pages: 10
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