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      The geographic, environmental and phylogenetic evolution of the Alveolinoidea from the Cretaceous to the present day

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          Abstract

          The superfamily Alveolinoidea is a member of the Order Miliolida, and comprises three main families, the Alveolinidae, the Fabulariidae and the Rhapydioninidae. They are examples of Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), which are single-celled organisms with specific characteristic endoskeletons. Alveolinoids are found globally from the Cretaceous to the present day, and are important biostratigraphic index fossils in shallow-marine carbonates. They are often associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs, and exhibit provincialism with characteristic genera often confined to one of the American, Tethyan or Indo-Pacific provinces. Previously, the systematic study of the global interrelationship between the various alveolinoid lineages has not been possible because of the absence of biostratigraphic correlation between the geographically scattered assemblages, and the scarcity of described material from the Indo-Pacific province. Here we use the literature and new material from the Americas, the French Alps, Iran, Tibet, India and South East Asia, coupled with the use of the planktonic foraminiferal zonal (PZ) correlation scheme to propose a comprehensive, global, systematic analysis of the biostratigraphic, phylogenetic and paleogeographic evolution of the alveolinoids. The alveolinoids originated in the Cretaceous in the Tethyan province. During a global sea-level low stand, a westward migration of some alveolinoids species to the Americas occurred, a behaviour previously reported in contemporaneous orbitolinid LBF. After the Cretaceous/Palaeogene (K–P) event, which saw the extinction of all Cretaceous alveolinoids, rare new forms of alveolinoids evolved again, first in the Americas and later independently in Tethys. As was found in previous studies of rotalid LBF, sea-level low stands in the Paleocene also allowed some alveolinoid forms to migrate, but this time in an eastward direction from the Americas to Tethys, and from Tethys on to the Indo-Pacific province. Alveolinoids still exist today ( Borelis and Alveolinella), the former of which is cosmopolitan, while the latter is restricted to the Indo-Pacific province. Throughout their phylogenetic history, alveolinoids characteristically exhibit convergent evolution, with the repeated re-occurrence of certain morphological features. Understanding this propensity to homoplasy is essential in understanding and constructing the phylogenetic relationships within the alveolinoid superfamily.

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          Most cited references 164

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          The Phanerozoic record of global sea-level change.

           K. Miller (2005)
          We review Phanerozoic sea-level changes [543 million years ago (Ma) to the present] on various time scales and present a new sea-level record for the past 100 million years (My). Long-term sea level peaked at 100 +/- 50 meters during the Cretaceous, implying that ocean-crust production rates were much lower than previously inferred. Sea level mirrors oxygen isotope variations, reflecting ice-volume change on the 10(4)- to 10(6)-year scale, but a link between oxygen isotope and sea level on the 10(7)-year scale must be due to temperature changes that we attribute to tectonically controlled carbon dioxide variations. Sea-level change has influenced phytoplankton evolution, ocean chemistry, and the loci of carbonate, organic carbon, and siliciclastic sediment burial. Over the past 100 My, sea-level changes reflect global climate evolution from a time of ephemeral Antarctic ice sheets (100 to 33 Ma), through a time of large ice sheets primarily in Antarctica (33 to 2.5 Ma), to a world with large Antarctic and large, variable Northern Hemisphere ice sheets (2.5 Ma to the present).
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            Why are larger Foraminifera large?

            Delayed maturation and growth to large sizes are only advantageous under stable environmental conditions where food resources are limited. Specialization to algal symbiosis is also highly advantageous under those conditions if sunlight is available. The coevolution of these two characteristics has occurred many times in many foraminiferal lineages. These traits are sometimes associated with increased embryon size and suppression of sexual reproduction, which are also characteristics most advantageous under stable environmental conditions. Specialization for these traits, ensuring success in warm, shallow, stable, oligotrophic environments, often dooms the species or lineage to extinction when conditions change.
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              Lazarus taxa and fossil abundance at times of biotic crisis

               M. Benton,  P. Wignall (1999)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                UCL Open Environ
                UCLOE
                UCL Open Environment
                UCL Open Environ
                UCL Press (UK )
                2632-0886
                08 March 2021
                2021
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Office of the Vice-Provost (Research), University College London, 2 Taviton Street, London WC1H 0BT, UK
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: E-mail: m.fadel@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
                Article
                10.14324/111.444/ucloe.000015
                © 2021 The Authors.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                References: 150, Pages: 34
                Categories
                Research Article

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