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      Research priorities for maintaining biodiversity’s contributions to people in Latin America

        , 1 ,   2 , 3 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 3 , 8 , 1 , 3 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ,   14 , 15 , 16 , 3 , 13 , 1 , 17 ,   6 ,   18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27

      UCL Open Environment

      UCL Press

      ecosystem services, environmental change, capacity building, investment in research, data availability, knowledge systems, governance

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          Abstract

          Maintaining biodiversity is crucial for ensuring human well-being. The authors participated in a workshop held in Palenque, Mexico, in August 2018, that brought together 30 mostly early-career scientists working in different disciplines (natural, social and economic sciences) with the aim of identifying research priorities for studying the contributions of biodiversity to people and how these contributions might be impacted by environmental change. Five main groups of questions emerged: (1) Enhancing the quantity, quality, and availability of biodiversity data; (2) Integrating different knowledge systems; (3) Improved methods for integrating diverse data; (4) Fundamental questions in ecology and evolution; and (5) Multi-level governance across boundaries. We discuss the need for increased capacity building and investment in research programmes to address these challenges.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Synergies among extinction drivers under global change.

          If habitat destruction or overexploitation of populations is severe, species loss can occur directly and abruptly. Yet the final descent to extinction is often driven by synergistic processes (amplifying feedbacks) that can be disconnected from the original cause of decline. We review recent observational, experimental and meta-analytic work which together show that owing to interacting and self-reinforcing processes, estimates of extinction risk for most species are more severe than previously recognised. As such, conservation actions which only target single-threat drivers risk being inadequate because of the cascading effects caused by unmanaged synergies. Future work should focus on how climate change will interact with and accelerate ongoing threats to biodiversity, such as habitat degradation, overexploitation and invasive species.
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            PanTHERIA: a species-level database of life history, ecology, and geography of extant and recently extinct mammals

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              COMADRE: a global data base of animal demography

              Summary The open‐data scientific philosophy is being widely adopted and proving to promote considerable progress in ecology and evolution. Open‐data global data bases now exist on animal migration, species distribution, conservation status, etc. However, a gap exists for data on population dynamics spanning the rich diversity of the animal kingdom world‐wide. This information is fundamental to our understanding of the conditions that have shaped variation in animal life histories and their relationships with the environment, as well as the determinants of invasion and extinction. Matrix population models (MPMs) are among the most widely used demographic tools by animal ecologists. MPMs project population dynamics based on the reproduction, survival and development of individuals in a population over their life cycle. The outputs from MPMs have direct biological interpretations, facilitating comparisons among animal species as different as Caenorhabditis elegans, Loxodonta africana and Homo sapiens. Thousands of animal demographic records exist in the form of MPMs, but they are dispersed throughout the literature, rendering comparative analyses difficult. Here, we introduce the COMADRE Animal Matrix Database, an open‐data online repository, which in its version 1.0.0 contains data on 345 species world‐wide, from 402 studies with a total of 1625 population projection matrices. COMADRE also contains ancillary information (e.g. ecoregion, taxonomy, biogeography, etc.) that facilitates interpretation of the numerous demographic metrics that can be derived from its MPMs. We provide R code to some of these examples. Synthesis: We introduce the COMADRE Animal Matrix Database, a resource for animal demography. Its open‐data nature, together with its ancillary information, will facilitate comparative analysis, as will the growing availability of databases focusing on other aspects of the rich animal diversity, and tools to query and combine them. Through future frequent updates of COMADRE, and its integration with other online resources, we encourage animal ecologists to tackle global ecological and evolutionary questions with unprecedented sample size.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ucloe
                ucloe
                UCL Open Environment
                UCLOE
                UCL Press (UK )
                2632-0886
                08 August 2019
                : 1
                : 1-4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK
                [2 ]Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico
                [3 ]Centro del Cambio Global y la Sustentabilidad AC, Villahermosa, Mexico
                [4 ]Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal (IMBIV), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (UNC), CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina
                [5 ]Procesos y Sistemas de Información en Geomática, SA de CV. Calle 5 Viveros de Peten No. 18, Col. Viveros del Valle, Tlalnepantla, CP 54060, Edo. de Mex, Mexico
                [6 ]Land, Environment, Economics and Policy Institute, University of Exeter Business School, Xfi Building, Rennes Drive, Exeter, UK
                [7 ]Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile
                [8 ]Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
                [9 ]Instituto de Diversidad y Ecología Animal (IDEA), Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Córdoba, Argentina
                [10 ]Instituto de Ecología, A.C. Carretera antigua a Coatepec 351, Col. El Haya, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico
                [11 ]Department of Geography, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany
                [12 ]Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Escuela de Geografía, Condell 343, Providencia. Santiago, Chile
                [13 ]International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloßpl. 1, Laxenburg, 2361, Vienna, Austria
                [14 ]Institute for Sustainable Resources, University College London, London, UK; Current address: Global Water Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
                [15 ]Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK
                [16 ]Laboratorio de Estudios del Antropoceno, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción, Chile
                [17 ]Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Research Centre for Ecological Change, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
                [18 ]Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Museo de Zoología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México City, Mexico
                [19 ]Centro de Estudios e Investigación en Desarrollo Sustentable, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Mexico
                [20 ]Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
                [21 ]Department of Biology, University of York, York, UK
                [22 ]Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
                [23 ]Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile
                [24 ]NASCA Conservation Program, The Nature Conservancy, Bogotá, Colombia
                [25 ]Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biología Vegetal, CONICET and Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina
                [26 ]Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile
                [27 ]Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Laboratorio Internacional en Cambio Global (LINCGlobal), Centro de Cambio Global UC (PUCGlobal), The Santa Fe Institute, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad (C3), Universidad Autónoma de México, Mexico
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Richard G. Pearson, Centre for Biodiversity and Environment Research, Department of Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK; Email: richard.pearson@ 123456ucl.ac.uk
                Article
                10.14324/111.444/ucloe.000002
                Copyright © 2019 The Authors.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 12, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Research Article

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