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    Review of 'A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiations'

    A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiationsCrossref
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    A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiations

    The last 30 years have been a period of intense and continuous international negotiations to deal with climate change. During the same 30 years, humanity has doubled the amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. There has, however, been progress and some notable successes in the negotiations. In 2015, at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 196 countries adopted the Paris Agreement stating that they would limit global temperatures to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and would pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. The first review of the Paris agreement was at COP26 in Glasgow with many countries pledging to go net zero emissions by the middle of the century. But currently these pledges, if fulfilled, will only limit global average temperature to 2.4˚C to 2.8˚C. At COP27 in Egypt the core agreements from the Glasgow Climate Pact were maintained and countries finally agreed to set up a Loss and Damage facility – though details of who finances and who can claim are still be to be worked out. This article reviews the key moments in the history of international climate change negotiations and discusses what the key objectives are for future COP meetings.

      Review information

      This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com.

      Earth & Environmental sciences
      COP26,Paris Agreement,COP27,net zero,Climate,Policy and law,Sustainable development,UNFCCC,climate emergency,negotiations,Kyoto Protocol,climate change,environmental social movements,The Environment

      Review text

      This manuscript does an excellent job of incorporating reviewers’ comments, and the authors further included a briefing on the latest development in the climate change negotiations around COP27.  This work is a good reminder for the audience to maintain the political will to “move to implementation”, which is yet to be sought for in the global efforts. In the same context, the continuing work of the authors may consider discussing the international and national efforts to develop science-based solutions and their application to the global south (either in this manuscript or the following one).

      While global negotiations are of fundamental importance, the pace of national policy development and private sector movement is becoming a decisive factor toward the transition, particularly in climate finance and net-zero targets. I look forward to the continuing work of the authors in this regard.


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