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    Review of 'A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiations'

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    A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiationsCrossref
    The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
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        Rated 4 of 5.
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        Rated 4 of 5.
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        Rated 4 of 5.
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        Rated 5 of 5.
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    A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiations

    The last 30 years have been a period of intense and continuous international negotiation to deal with climate change. During the same 30 years, humanity has doubled the amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. There has, however, been progress and some notable successes. In 2015 at COP21, 196 countries signed the Paris Agreement stating that they would limit global temperatures to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and would pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. This was followed up at COP26 in Glasgow with many countries pledging to go net zero emissions by the middle of the century. But currently these pledges, if fulfilled, will only limit global average temperature to 2.4˚C to 2.8˚C. This article reviews the history of international climate change negotiations and examines what the key objectives are for future COP meetings.
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      Review information

      10.14293/S2199-1006.1.SOR-EARTH.AYVVHN.v1.RJBHFD
      This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com.

      Earth & Environmental sciences
      COP26,COP27,Paris Agreement,net zero,Policy and law,Climate,UNFCCC,Sustainable development,climate emergency,negotiations,climate change,Kyoto Protocol,environmental social movements,The Environment
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      Review text

      The paper presents a clearly written simple history of the UNFCCC negotiations. However, there are key aspects of this history that have contributed greatly to the negotiations and discussion, which are not explored enough in the paper: 1. the SDGs adopted in 2015, same year as the Paris Agreement and 2. the Environmental, Social, Governance (ESG) discussions and pressures on the corporate sector increasingly growing since 2006, expecting the companies they hold to commit strongly to ESG criteria (climate change at the center of these discussions, aligned with net zero strategies that have hundredfold since 2020). Many frameworks for addressing ESG have emerged in recent years. The Taskforce on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) in December of 2015 was established in an effort to further consider climate in the global financial system. The TCFD allows companies a way to report their climate-related financial risks, consisting of physical, liability and transition risks, to stakeholders. To understand the pressures of commitments made by countries and their NDCs, one must also look at pressured placed on and by the private sector and investmentors. I believe that this paper could highly benefit from addressing ESG, since COP-26 we've seen the corporate world at the center of the discussions and decarbonization and the renewable transition won't happen without them. In fact, at the upcoming COP-27, we'll see a lot more leadership and announcements coming from the private sector, including banks and global asset managers. 

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