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    Review of 'A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiations'

    A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiationsCrossref
    The manuscript has been significantly improved. I suggest to accept after very minor changes
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    A short history of the successes and failures of the international climate change negotiations

    The last 30 years have been a period of intense and continuous international negotiations to deal with climate change. During the same 30 years, humanity has doubled the amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. There has, however, been progress and some notable successes in the negotiations. In 2015, at the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 196 countries adopted the Paris Agreement stating that they would limit global temperatures to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and would pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. The first review of the Paris agreement was at COP26 in Glasgow with many countries pledging to go net zero emissions by the middle of the century. But currently these pledges, if fulfilled, will only limit global average temperature to 2.4˚C to 2.8˚C. At COP27 in Egypt the core agreements from the Glasgow Climate Pact were maintained and countries finally agreed to set up a Loss and Damage facility – though details of who finances and who can claim are still be to be worked out. This article reviews the key moments in the history of international climate change negotiations and discusses what the key objectives are for future COP meetings.

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      This work has been published open access under Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Conditions, terms of use and publishing policy can be found at www.scienceopen.com.

      Earth & Environmental sciences
      COP26,Paris Agreement,COP27,net zero,Climate,Policy and law,Sustainable development,UNFCCC,climate emergency,negotiations,Kyoto Protocol,climate change,environmental social movements,The Environment

      Review text

      This version of the manuscript has been significantly improved compared to the previous one. Most of the suggestions have been incorporated in the new version and the outcomes of COP 27 have been also included.

      I have few specific comments and suggestions for amendments:

      1. With the new paragraph “COP16 Cancun and COP17 Durban” there are some sentences which sound redundant and repetitive; for example, I suggest to reduce and rephrase the initial section of the following paragraph “COP21 ….”.
      2. I still feel that some the decarbonization policy announced by some corporations may be seen as green-washing if not accompanied by real fossil fuel abandonment.
      3. The paragraph about COP27 is very timely. Of course, the outcome of COP27 can be seen as a half failure or a small success. The establishment of a Loss and Damage Fund is a small step forward, though at the moment it is an empty box and it is not clear how and who will fill it.

      Finally, please correct misspelling of my name in the acknowledgements (Enrico Brugnoli).


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