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      COVID-19 and Informal Settlements - Implications for Water, Sanitation and Health in India and Indonesia

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          Informal settlements are home to over one billion people worldwide and are characterised by high population densities and poor environmental conditions. The authors identify the impact of COVID-19 on existing water and sanitation practices and potential pathways for transmission of COVID-19 in informal settlements in India and Indonesia. In the short term, there is an urgent need for mobile hand washing, washing/bathing facilities and toilets. In the long term, COVID-19 provides an opportunity to invest in centralised water and sanitation networked solutions appropriated for high-density settings to integrate those settlements into the city, improve environmental conditions and health in cities.

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          Author and article information

          UCL Open: Environment Preprint
          UCL Press
          17 August 2020
          [1 ] UCL, Engineering for International Development Centre, Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering
          [2 ] Aceso Global Health Consultants Limited
          [3 ] UCL, Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering
          [4 ] Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University
          [5 ] Indonesia One Health University Network
          [6 ] Aceso Global Health Consultants Limited, India
          [7 ] Population, Policy and Practice, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health

          This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

          Submission on behalf of Childhood Infections & Pollution (CHIP) Consortium N/A

          Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.


          COVID-19, WASH, Informal settlements, India, Indonesia, infection pathways, Water, The Environment, Policy and law


          Date: 17/8/2020

          Handling Editor: Michael McClain

          The article has been accepted and it is suitable for publication in UCL Open: Environment.

          2020-09-23 15:31 UTC

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