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      Ticking Time Bomb: Implications of the Covid-19 Lockdown on E-Waste Management in Developing Countries

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          The coronavirus pandemic has altered the course of events globally since the outbreak of the corona virus disease (COVID-19) late 2019 further giving credence to the long standing beliefthat the world is indeed a global village. There have been different responses by countries to the raging pandemic including imposition of lockdowns, quarantine and isolation. The imposition of the lockdown whether full or partial, has not been without major consequences leading to resort to information, communication and technological (ICT) based measures to minimize the effect of the lockdown and as an alternative to physical interactions. The use of ICT devices to bridge the gaps created by the lockdown on schools, business offices and other sectors, has led to increased use of electronic devices. The challenge of electronic waste (e-waste) management in developing countries has been on for a while and the increased use of electronic devices is likely to compound the challenge during, and post COVID-19. Whilst the development of ICT based options as viable alternative to face-to-face interactions may not be a negative development, the paper argues that the existing frameworks are inadequate to manage the resultant increase in e-waste in most developing countries and that there is need more than ever before for developing countries to exercise caution in embracing these ICT based options without putting in place measures to ensure that there is increased capacity to manage and dispose the e-waste created thereby.

          Revision notes

          Dear Editors:

          We are delighted to submit a revised version of our manuscript titled “Ticking Time Bomb: Implications of the Covid-19 Lockdown on E-Waste Management in Developing Countries” for publication in the journal UCL Open: Environment.

          We have revised the manuscript in line with the comments raised by both reviewers. Changes made are highlighted in yellow in the attached file. Summary of the revisions made are as follows:

          Reviewer 1

          • Discussions in the manuscript has been broadened to include legal framework and implementation challenges in other countries other than Nigeria.
          • Summary table highlighting the existing legal frameworks and challenges have been included as suggested.
          • Appropriate recommendations to address the identified challenges have been proposed.


          Reviewer 2

          • Discussions in the manuscript has been broadened to include legal framework and implementation challenges in other countries.
          • General discussions on COVID-19 have been broadened to relate the discussions to the environment.
          • There are no studies reporting direct evidence of increased importation of ICT devices and electronic waste during the pandemic. However, studies which suggest increased use of ICT devices and options and increased consumption of electrical energy arising from increased use of electronics and ICT devices during the pandemic have been included.
          • Brief discussion of impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the management of waste was included.
          • Other suggestions regarding typographical errors and rephrasing statements have been addressed.

          We thank you for your kind consideration.

          Yours Sincerely,


          Oluwadamilola Adejumo

          ORCID: 0000-0002-0340-804X

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          Author and article information

          UCL Open: Environment Preprint
          UCL Press
          11 May 2021
          [1 ] Department of Business Law, Obafemi Awolowo University
          [2 ] Department of Public Law, Obafemi Awolowo University

          This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

          Data sharing not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

          International & Comparative law, Environmental change, Environmental management, Policy & Planning, Public law, Public health

          Pollution and health, developing countries, COVID-19 lockdown, pollution, Environmental policy and practice, e-waste, Environmental protection, waste management, coronavirus


          Date: 25 June 2021

          Handling Editor: Prof Dan Osborn

          Editorial decision: Accept. This revised article has been accepted following peer review and it is suitable for publication in UCL Open: Environment.

          2021-06-25 10:33 UTC

          Date: 25 June 2021

          Handling Editor: Prof Dan Osborn

          The article has been revised, this article remains a preprint article and peer-review has not been completed. It is under consideration following submission to UCL Open: Environment for open peer review.

          2021-06-25 10:33 UTC

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